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美国航天局成立委员会审查初始地球系统观测计划

NASA Establishes Board to Review Initial Earth System Observatory Plans

NASA has established an Independent Review Board, or IRB, to proactively assist with assessment of current plans and goals for the next generation of Earth-observing satellites, designed to propel us forward in understanding our changing planet: NASA’s Earth System Observatory.

美国宇航局已经成立了一个独立的审查委员会(IRB),以积极协助评估下一代地球观测卫星的当前计划和目标,旨在推动我们进一步了解我们不断变化的星球:美国宇航局的地球系统观测站。

The new set of Earth-focused missions will provide key information to guide efforts related to climate change, disaster mitigation, fighting forest fires, improving weather and air quality forecasts, and improving real-time agricultural processes. Within the observatory, each satellite will be uniquely designed to complement the others, providing a 3D, holistic view of Earth, from bedrock to atmosphere.

这套新的以地球为重点的任务将提供关键信息,以指导与气候变化、减灾、扑灭森林火灾、改善天气和空气质量预测以及改善实时农业过程相关的工作。在天文台内,每颗卫星都将被独特设计,以补充其他卫星,提供从基岩到大气的地球三维整体视图。

The independent review board will help NASA review the technical concepts developed during preliminary formulation so far for robustness, as well as the ability to satisfy the mission’s essential requirements. It will help ensure NASA is adopting lessons learned from experience with previous large, strategic science missions.

独立审查委员会将帮助美国宇航局审查迄今为止在初步制定过程中制定的技术概念的稳健性,以及满足任务基本要求的能力。这将有助于确保美国宇航局吸取以往大型战略科学任务的经验教训。

“The Earth System Observatory will take us into the next generation of remote sensing,” said Thomas Zurbuchen, NASA’s Associate Administrator for the Science Mission Directorate at the agency’s Headquarters in Washington. “We are designing the observatory to give us the most comprehensive view yet of how Earth is changing. By strengthening our scientific understanding, we can provide information for people and communities around the world to plan for the future.”

“地球系统观测站将把我们带入下一代遥感,”美国宇航局科学任务局副局长托马斯·祖布钦说。“我们正在设计观测站,以使我们对地球如何变化有迄今为止最全面的了解。通过加强我们的科学理解,我们可以为世界各地的人们和社区规划未来提供信息。”

The observatory seeks to implement recommendations from the 2017 Earth Science Decadal Survey by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine, which lays out ambitious but critically necessary research and observation guidance for our changing planet.

该观测站试图实施国家科学、工程和医学院2017年地球科学十年期调查的建议,该调查为我们不断变化的星球提供了雄心勃勃但极为必要的研究和观测指导。

Areas of focus for the observatory include:

天文台的重点领域包括:

  • Atmosphere Observing System, managed by NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, which examines:
  • 由美国宇航局戈达德航天飞行中心管理的大气观测系统,检查:
    • Aerosols: Answering the critical question of how aerosols affect the global energy balance, a key source of uncertainty in predicting climate change.
    • 气溶胶:回答气溶胶如何影响全球能量平衡这一关键问题,这是预测气候变化的一个关键不确定性来源。
    • Cloud, Convection, and Precipitation: Tackling the largest sources of uncertainty in future projections of climate change, air quality forecasting, and prediction of severe weather.
    • 云、对流和降水:解决未来气候变化预测、空气质量预测和恶劣天气预测中最大的不确定性来源。
  • Mass Change, managed by NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL): Providing drought assessment and forecasting, associated planning for water use for agriculture, as well as supporting natural hazard response.
  • 由NASA喷气推进实验室(JPL)管理的大规模变化:提供干旱评估和预测,农业用水相关规划,以及支持自然灾害应对。
  • Surface Biology and Geology, managed by JPL: Understanding climate changes that impact food and agriculture, habitation, and natural resources, by answering open questions about the fluxes of carbon, water, nutrients, and energy within and between ecosystems and the atmosphere, the ocean, and the Earth.
  • 表面生物学和地质学,由JPL管理:通过回答有关生态系统与大气、海洋和地球之间的碳、水、营养和能量通量的公开问题,了解影响粮食和农业、居住和自然资源的气候变化。
  • Surface Deformation and Change: Quantifying models of sea-level and landscape change driven by climate change, hazard forecasts, and disaster impact assessments, including dynamics of earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides, glaciers, groundwater, and Earth’s interior.
  • 地表变形和变化:量化由气候变化、灾害预测和灾害影响评估驱动的海平面和景观变化模型,包括地震、火山、滑坡、冰川、地下水和地球内部的动力学。

Surface Biology and Geology, Mass Change, and the Atmosphere Observing System had successful mission concept reviews earlier this year. The results of the IRB will be used to inform any architecture changes to the mission concepts prior to this fall when these missions are expected to enter the concept and technology development phase – known as Phase A – resulting in proposed mission architectures. Surface Deformation and Change is in an extended study phase in advance of Phase A.

今年早些时候,表面生物学和地质学、质量变化和大气观测系统成功地完成了任务概念审查。IRB的结果将用于告知今年秋天之前任务概念的任何架构变更,届时这些任务预计将进入概念和技术开发阶段(称为阶段A),从而产生拟议的任务架构。在A阶段之前,表面变形和变化处于扩展研究阶段。

Read more at: Nasa.gov

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