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TSS独家报道:新冠疫苗护照可能有助于经济复苏,但有关人士表示:这其中有一个问题

TSS EXCLUSIVE: COVID Vaccine Passports May Help Revive Economies But Critics Say There’s A Catch

原作者:Rhodilee Jean Dolor

by Rhodilee Jean Dolor

为了在防止新冠病毒感染传播的同时世界抗疫情况恢复旧常态,世界各地的政府领导人和卫生当局将目光转向了一个潜在的解决方案:疫苗护照。

In an attempt to bring back the old normal while preventing the spread of new COVID-19 infections, government leaders and health authorities worldwide turn to a potential solution: vaccine passports.

疫苗护照表明持有者现在对病毒有一定的免疫力,这意味着其他人可以与该护照持有者互动,而不会有很大的感染风险。护照提供了一种潜在的解决方案,可以让人们更舒适地旅行,并参与受疫情影响的活动。有了一份表明自己不能传播呼吸道疾病的文件,护照持有者就可以去那些对未接种者限制的地方参加活动。

Vaccine passports are supposed to indicate that the holders now have some immunity against the virus, which means that other people can interact with the passport holder without as great a risk of getting infected.  Passports offer a potential solution that will allow people to more comfortable travel and engage in activities that were hampered by the pandemic. With a document suggesting that someone can’t spread the respiratory disease, passport holders could go to places and attend events that are otherwise restricted for the unvaccinated.

许多国家开始应用疫苗护照制度

Countries Adopt Vaccine Passport System

今年2月,以色列为接种过冠状病毒疫苗或已从感染中恢复的个人推出了其疫苗护照“绿色通行证”。

Israel rolled out its vaccine passport, the Green Pass, in February for individuals who had doses of the coronavirus vaccine or have recovered from the infection. 

通行证可以是一个实体文件,也可以下载到智能手机上。它可以作为一个人去餐馆吃饭,参加聚会,甚至出国旅行的首要证件。以色列与地中海邻国希腊和塞浦路斯达成协议,允许其持有通行证的公民访问这两个国家。

The pass can be a physical document or downloaded to a smartphone. It serves as a person’s ticket to activities like dining in a restaurant, attending gatherings, and even traveling abroad. Israel has struck deals with Mediterranean neighbors Greece and Cyprus to allow its citizens with the passes to visit these two countries.

其他国家现在也在采取类似的举措。在英国,首相Boris Johnson最近透露,政府将测试一种COVID-19状态认证系统,希望旅行和参加活动的人可以通过该系统证明自己对COVID-19有免疫能力。

Other countries are now adopting similar initiatives. In the UK, Prime Minister Boris Johnson revealed recently that the government will test out a COVID-status certification system through which people who want to travel and attend events can prove they have protection against COVID-19.

韩国还宣布,将推出提供数字疫苗证明的移动应用程序。韩国总理丁世均表示,区块链驱动的疫苗护照将于2021年4月正式推出。日本、中国和丹麦也计划引进类似的系统。

South Korea also announced that it will launch a mobile app that will provide digital proof of vaccination. Prime Minister Chung Sye-kyun said the blockchain-powered vaccine passport will be officially launched in April 2021. Japan, China, and Denmark also plan to introduce similar systems. 

不过,美国政府对疫苗护照持不同立场。Joe Biden总统的政府不希望联邦政府颁发疫苗证书或将人们的疫苗接种数据存储在一个中央数据库中。美国政府打算鼓励私营部门公司和非营利组织开发解决方案。

The US has a different stance on vaccine passports, though. President Joe Biden’s administration does not want the federal government to issue vaccine credentials or store people’s vaccination data in a centralized database. It intends to encourage private sector companies and non-profit organizations to develop solutions.

优点与不足

The Good And The Bad

疫情下国家希望自身经济复苏的想法可能推动了疫苗护照在全球的推广。首先,该体系允许各国重新开放经济,重振因限制集会和不必要的旅行而崩溃的企业。

Good intentions may have propelled the introduction of vaccine passports globally. For one, the system allows nations to reopen their economies and revive businesses that crashed amid restrictions against gatherings and unnecessary travels.

纽约州州长Andrew Cuomo在宣布推出美国首个官方疫苗护照时指出,Excelsior通行证在该州“基于科学的重新开放”中发挥了关键作用。

In announcing the launch of the first official vaccine passport in the US, New York Governor Andrew Cuomo pointed out the crucial role of the Excelsior Pass in the state’s “science-based reopening.”

Cuomo说:“纽约人已经证明,他们可以遵循公共卫生指导抗击COVID,创造性的Excelsior通行证是我们抗击病毒的百宝箱中的另一个法宝,它将同时允许更多经济部门安全重新开放,并确保个人信息的安全。”

“New Yorkers have proven they can follow public health guidance to beat back COVID, and the innovative Excelsior Pass is another tool in our new toolbox to fight the virus while allowing more sectors of the economy to reopen safely and keeping personal information secure,” Cuomo said.

然而,疫苗护照已经成为一个热议的话题。该系统的潜在危险问题已经浮出水面,可能侵犯公民隐私是最令人担忧的问题之一。总部位于纽约Surveillance Technology Oversight Project的执行负责人Albert Fox Cahn指出,Cuomo州长并没有公开隐私政策。他评论道:“我们不知道这些数据如何被追踪,也不知道警方是否可以获取这些数据。”

However, vaccine passports have become a hotly debated topic. Issues of the system’s potential dangers have emerged, with possible violation of privacy being one of the top concerns.  Albert Fox Cahn, executive director of the New York-based Surveillance Technology Oversight Project, noted that Gov. Cuomo did not publish a privacy policy on the pass. “We have no idea how this data can be tracked and if it’s accessible to police,” he commented. 

Excelsior Pass使用区块链,虽然这些数字账本上的数据通常是公开的,但Excelsior Pass使用的是私人区块链,这意味着只有授权方可以检查内容。一些人担心这种设置可能会导致数据滥用,因为收集到的数据缺乏清晰的保护方式。区块链专家还质疑使用支撑比特币和其他加密货币的技术的必要性,因为数据的真实性问题可能会危及系统。

Excelsior Pass uses blockchain, and while data on these digital ledgers are typically public, Excelsior Pass uses a private blockchain, which means only authorized parties can check the contents. Some fear that the setup may lead to abuse because of lacking clarity on how the collected data is protected. Blockchain experts also question the necessity of using the technology underpinning Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies since issues on the data’s veracity could compromise the system. 

“区块链解决了一个非常具体的关于不信任人的问题,这个疫苗的问题是你确实信任别人;你必须相信进入区块链的数据是真实可信的,反映了谁接种了疫苗,”Zerocash protocol of the Zcash cryptocurrency的联合创始人Matthew Green说。

“Blockchain solves a very specific problem around not trusting people, and the problem with this vaccine stuff is you do trust people; you have to trust the data being entered into the blockchain is an actual trusted reflection of who’s vaccinated or not,” said Matthew Green, who co-created the Zerocash protocol of the Zcash cryptocurrency.

英国埃克塞特大学法学副教授Ana Beduschi也警告称,数字健康护照引发了数据隐私和人权方面的问题。她说:“如果一些人无法获得或负担得起COVID-19检测或疫苗,他们将无法证明自己的健康状况,因此他们的自由将实际上受到限制。”

Ana Beduschi, an associate law professor at the University of Exeter, also warned that digital health passports raise questions on data privacy and human rights.  “If some people cannot access or afford COVID-19 tests or vaccines, they will not be able to prove their health status, and thus their freedoms will be de facto restricted,” she said.

美国其他州已经在其辖区内禁止了疫苗护照。佛罗里达州州长Ron DeSantis最近签署了一项行政命令,反对这个阳光之州的文件,他认为这可能会损害患者的隐私。他还表示,该系统可能会根据疫苗接种记录将洲内公民划分为两类。“要求参加体育活动、光顾餐馆或去电影院等日常生活的所谓COVID-19疫苗护照,将根据接种疫苗划分为两类公民。”他的行政命令这样写道。

Other US states already banned vaccine passports in their jurisdiction. Florida Governor Ron DeSantis, who recently signed an executive order against the documentation in the Sunshine State, argued that it may harm patient privacy. He also said that the system may create two classes of citizens based on vaccination records.“Requiring so-called COVID-19 vaccine passports for taking part in everyday life–such as attending a sporting event, patronizing a restaurant, or going to a movie theater–would create two classes of citizens based on vaccinations.” his executive order reads

世界卫生组织(WHO)也反对在允许国际旅行时使用疫苗接种证明的想法,称这可能不是重新开始旅行的有效策略。世卫组织指出,COVID – 19疫苗在减少病毒传播方面的有效性仍然存在不确定性,而且疫苗的可用性仍然有限。世卫组织发言人Dr. Margaret Harris说:“现阶段我们不希望将接种疫苗护照作为出入境的要求,因为我们不确定在这个阶段疫苗是否能防止传播。”

The World Health Organization (WHO) also opposes the idea of using certificates of vaccination in allowing international travel, saying it may not be an effective strategy to restart travel. The UN agency noted there are still uncertainties on the effectiveness of COVID jabs in reducing the transmission of the virus and the still limited availability of the vaccines. “At this stage, we would not like to see vaccination passports as a requirement for entry or exit because we are not sure at this stage that the vaccine prevents transmissions,” said WHO spokesperson Dr. Margaret Harris.

战疫仍在继续

The Battle Continues

当前,世界仍在与疫情作斗争。截至撰写本文时,已有近2300万人感染了COVID-19。在与新冠肺炎疫情进行斗争的过程中,使用疫苗护照的必要性是世界面临的前所未有的问题之一。

The world is still at war against the pandemic. At the time of writing, nearly 23 million are still infected with COVID-19. The necessity of using a vaccine passport is one of the unprecedented issues that the world has to face as the battle against COVID continues.

随着研究人员有望找到治疗方法,世界最终将赢得这场战疫,人们也可以与他人交往,探索新的领域,不再受限制,不再害怕被感染。然而,目前我们只能希望世界领导人在危机中做出最好的决定,制定合理的政策,这包括决定是否采用基于人们接种疫苗状况的制度。

Sooner or later, as researchers hopefully find a cure and the world finally develops herd immunity against the illness, people can eventually mingle with others and explore new places without restrictions and fear of getting infected. For now, though, we can only hope that the world’s leaders make the best decision in making sound policies amid the crisis, and this includes settling whether or not to adopt a system based on people’s vaccination status.

STARSET_Mirror

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